Kano Model

A product development theory that classifies features into five areas to aid prioritization

Must-have features are the minimum expected functionality; they are taken for granted. Users will not be excited if they are present, but disappointed if they are absent.

One-dimensional features are received differently depending on how fully (or well) they are implemented. Users will be excited if they are implemented well, and disappointed if they are not.

Attractive features are unexpected. Users will be excited if they are present, but not disappointed if they are absent.

Indifferent features will neither excite nor disappoint users.

Reverse features are divisive; their reception depends on individual needs or desires. When present, some users will be excited, but others will be disappointed.

By classifying features into these five categories, designers can meet basic needs and deliver delightful innovation without scaring off users. The model can also to be used to track the shift of features over time as innovative features become basic needs.